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考研英语《卫报》阅读精析“环境篇”--Deforestation森林砍伐

2017-07-10 09:36:24 来源:北外网课

今天,北外网课带大家继续学习考研英语阅读分析技巧,所选择的素材是《卫报》换镜篇-Deforestation森林砍伐。

据统计,全球每年约有13,000,00013Mha)公顷的森林在消失,这一数据在今后三十年还将螺旋上升。欧洲之前曾承诺在2020前实现“零砍伐”,但据欧盟草案可行性研究预测:欧盟每年需要额外砍伐5,000,000公顷(5Mha)的林地来满足其对农产品的需求。目前,一项包含约束立法的森林砍伐行为计划目前正在被欧洲委员会考虑当中。

Europe's contribution to deforestation set to rise despite pledge to halt it

视频连接:https://www.livescience.com/27692-deforestation.html



 Europe’s contribution to global deforestation[1] may rise by more than a quarter by 2030, despite a pledge[2] to halt[3] such practices by the end of this decade, according to a leaked[4] draft[5] EU analysis.

   An estimated 13m hectares[6] (Mha) of the world’s forestland is lost each year, a figure projected[7] to spiral[8] in the next 30 years with the Amazon, Greater Mekongand Borneo bearing the brunt[9] of tree clearances[10].

   But despite signing several international pledges to end deforestation by this decade’s end, more than 5Mha of extra forest land will be needed annually by 2030 to meet EU demand for agricultural products, a draft EU feasibility[11] study predicts.

“The EU pledged to stop deforestation by 2020, not to increase it,” said Sebastian Risso, a spokesman for Greenpeace. “Deforestation is a conveyor belt[12] to devastating climate change and species loss that the world must stop, and fast.

“It is hypocritical[13] for Europe to portray itself as a climate leader while doing little to slow its own insatiable[14] appetite[15] for the fruits of destroyed forests.”

Land clearances for crop, livestock[16] and biofuel production are by far the biggest causes of deforestation, and Europe is the end destination for nearly a quarter of such products beef, soy, palm oil and leather which have been cultivated[17] on illegally deforested lands.

According to the draft EU feasibility study, the “embodied” deforestation rate   which is directly linked to EU consumption will increase from between 250,000-500,000ha in 2015 to 340,000-590,000ha in 2030.

The figures do not encompass[18] forest degradation or the impacts of lending by EU financial institutions[19].

The Guardian understands that the report’s methodology[20] has also been criticised within the European commission, where some officials say that its projections[21] are too conservative[22] and do not account for European bioenergy demand.

A deforestation action plan that could include binding[23] legislation[24] is currently under consideration by the European commission.

The EU has signed several pledges to halt deforestation by 2020 within accords that include: the UN convention[25] on biological diversity, the UN sustainable development goals, the UN forum[26] on forests, the New York declaration[27] on forests, and the Amsterdam declaration.


【背景知识】

亚马逊热带雨林(Amazon Rainforest):位于南美洲的亚马逊盆地,被人们称为“地球之肺”。由于疯狂的砍伐行为,亚马逊雨林正从天堂变成地狱。在亚马逊,大面积雨林被大火夷为平地,而后进行农业生产。

婆罗洲 (Borneo):婆罗洲地处马来西亚和印尼交界,被赤道一分为二,是世界第三大岛,有独特的热带雨林岛屿,是地球上生物多样性最丰富的地区。

婆罗洲的森林砍伐视频:http://weibo.com/tv/v/Egwwowy5J?fid=1034:c822b4eee67f51960b12d27949027cda

棕榈油 (palm oil)与森林采伐 (deforestation)是一种热带木本植物油,是目前世界上生产量、消费量和国际贸易量最大的植物油品种,与大豆油菜籽油并称为世界三大植物油相比其他种类的产油植物,棕榈产量更高,因而成为制造业的首选用油。市场需求的快速上扬对种植油棕的热带国家造成了严重的影响,越来越多的棕榈种植园取代了雨林,造成了深林的大量采伐。


【词汇】

1. deforestation n. 采伐森林,森林开伐

2. pledge v. & n. 保证,承诺

3. halt v. 停止

4. leak v. 泄露

5. draft n. 草稿

6. hectare n. 公顷

7. project v. 预计

8. spiral v. 使作螺旋上升

9. bear the brunt 首当其冲;承受打击

10. clearance n. 清除;拆除

11. feasibility n. 可行性;可能性

12. conveyor belt 传送带

13. hypocritical adj. 虚伪的

14. insatiable adj. 贪得无厌的;不知足的

15. appetite n. 胃口

16. livestock n. 牲畜;家畜

17. cultivate v. 耕作

18. encompass v. 包含

19. institution n. 机构

20. methodology n. 方法学,方法论

21. projection n. 预计

22. conservative adj. 保守的

23. binding adj. 有约束力的

24. legislation n. 立法

25. convention n. 【法】协定

26. forum n. 论坛

27. declaration n. 官方声明


【翻译】

尽管之前承诺要停止砍伐,欧洲对全球的森林采伐“贡献率”仍将上升

根据一份泄露的欧盟分析报告草案,到2030年,欧洲对全球森林采伐的“贡献率”仍将超过15%,尽管之前欧盟承诺过要在这个十年期(2020年前)停止采伐行为。

据统计,全球每年约有13,000,00013Mha)公顷的森林在消失,这一数据在今后三十年还将螺旋上升,亚马逊和婆罗洲在森林消失过程中所受的冲击最大。

但尽管签署的几个国际承诺呼吁在这个十年(2020年)的后期结束森林砍伐,而一个欧盟草案可行性研究预测:欧盟每年需要额外砍伐5,000,000公顷(5Mha)的林地来满足其对农产品的需求。

“欧盟宣誓在2020年前停止森林砍伐,而非增加(砍伐量)。”绿色空间发言人Sebastian Risso指出:“森林砍伐是通向毁灭性气候变化和物种消失的“传送带”,全世界必须尽快停止这种行为。”

欧洲一边把自己描绘成气候领袖,一边却放任自己对砍伐森林而换来的作物的贪得无厌的胃口,这是一种虚伪做派。

到目前为止,开荒种植农作物、饲养家畜和取得生物燃料是砍伐森林的三个最主要的原因。而且(全球)近四分之一的牛肉、大豆、棕榈油和皮革产品最终会抵达欧洲,以上作物被耕种在了被非法砍伐的土地上。

根据欧盟可行性研究草案,与欧盟消费有直接联系的“物化”森林砍伐率将从2015年的250,000-500,000公顷增加至2030年的340,000-590,000

这些数据并没有包含森林退化或欧盟金融机构的借贷影响。

本报获悉:欧洲委员会批判了研究报告沿用的方法论,委员会的官员认为它对未来的预计太过保守,而且没有考虑欧洲对生物能源需求。

包含约束立法的森林砍伐行为计划目前正在被欧洲委员会考虑当中。

欧盟签署的在2020年之前停止砍伐的保证包括:关于生物多样性欧盟公约、欧盟可持续发展目标、欧盟森林论坛、纽约森林宣言和阿姆斯特丹声明。


【长难句分析】

But despite signing several international pledges to end deforestation by this decade’s end, more than 5Mha of extra forest land will be needed annually by 2030 to meet EU demand for agricultural products, a draft EU feasibility study predicts.

解析:despite ... by this decade’s end是一个介词短语,表让步,意为“尽管……但是……”。不定式to meet EU demand for agricultural products表目的。


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