2017-12-25 11:09:10 来源:北外网课


Section I Use of English


Readthe following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and markA, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Trustis a tricky business. On the one hand, it's a necessary condition __1__ many worthwhile things: childcare, friendships, etc. On the other hand, putting your __2__, in the wrong place oftencarries a high __3__.

__4__, why do we trust at all? Well, because itfeels good. __5__ peopleplace their trust in an individual or an institution, their brains releaseoxytocin, a hormone that __6__ pleasurablefeelings and triggers the herding instruct that prompts humans to __7__ with one another. Scientistshave found that exposure __8__ thishormone puts us in a trusting __9__: In aSwiss study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects;those subjects were ready to lend significantly higher amounts of money tostrangers than were their __10__ whoinhaled something else.

__11__ for us, we also have a sixthsense for dishonesty that may __12__ us. ACanadian study found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate __13__ a credible person and adishonest one. Sixty toddlers were each __14__ to an adult tester holding aplastic container. The tester would ask, “What’s in here?” before looking intothe container, smiling, and exclaiming, “Wow!” Each subject was then invited tolook __15__ . Halfof them found a toy; the other half __16__ thecontainer was empty-and realized the tester had __17__ them.

Amongthe children who had not been tricked, the majority were __18__ to cooperate with the tester inlearning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership. __19__, only five of the 30 childrenpaired with the “__20__” testerparticipated in a follow-up activity.

1.[A] on           [B] like                 [C]for                 [D]from

2.[A] faith           [B] concern         [C] attention               [D] interest

3.[A] benefit              [B] debt                      [C]hope              [D] price

4.[A] Therefore  [B] Then              [C]Instead          [D]Again

5.[A]Until            [B] Unless           [C] Although               [D] When

6.[A] selects       [B] produces              [C]applies           [D] maintains

7.[A] consult         [B] compete              [C] connect         [D] compare

8.[A] at                      [B] by                  [C]of                    [D]to

9.[A] context       [B] mood             [C]period            [D] circle

10. [A] counterparts                        [B]substitutes    

[C]colleagues                [D]supporters

11.[A] Funny             [B] Lucky      [C] Odd           [D]Ironic

12.[A] monitor           [B] protect           [C] surprise         [D] delight

13.[A] between          [B] within             [C] toward           [D] over

14.[A] transferred      [B] added            [C]introduced       [D] entrusted

15.[A] out                  [B] back                      [C] around           [D] inside

16.[A] discovered      [B] proved           [C]insisted          [D] remembered

17.[A] betrayed         [B]wronged         [C] fooled            [D] mocked

18.[A] forced             [B] willing             [C] hesitant          [D] entitled

19.[A] In contrast       [B] As a result      [C] On the whole        [D] For instance

20.[A] inflexible         [B] incapable       [C]unreliable       [D] unsuitable

SectionII Reading Comprehension

Part A


Readthe following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

Amongthe annoying challenges facing the middle class is one that will probably gounmentioned in the next presidential campaign: What happens when the robotscome for their jobs?

Don'tdismiss that possibility entirely. About half of U.S. jobs are at high risk ofbeing automated, according to a University of Oxford study, with the middleclass disproportionately squeezed. Lower-income jobs like gardening or day caredon't appeal to robots. But many middle-class occupations-trucking, financialadvice, software engineering — have aroused their interest, or soon will. Therich own the robots, so they will be fine.

Thisisn't to be alarmist. Optimists point out that technological upheaval hasbenefited workers in the past. The Industrial Revolution didn't go so well forLuddites whose jobs were displaced by mechanized looms, but it eventuallyraised living standards and created more jobs than it destroyed. Likewise,automation should eventually boost productivity, stimulate demand by drivingdown prices, and free workers from hard, boring work. But in the medium term,middle-class workers may need a lot of help adjusting.

Thefirst step, as Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee argue in The Second MachineAge, should be rethinking education and job training. Curriculums —from grammarschool to college- should evolve to focus less on memorizing facts and more oncreativity and complex communication. Vocational schools should do a better jobof fostering problem-solving skills and helping students work alongside robots.Online education can supplement the traditional kind. It could make extratraining and instruction affordable. Professionals trying to acquire new skillswill be able to do so without going into debt.

Thechallenge of coping with automation underlines the need for the U.S. to reviveits fading business dynamism: Starting new companies must be made easier. Inprevious eras of drastic technological change, entrepreneurs smoothed thetransition by dreaming up ways to combine labor and machines. The best uses of3D printers and virtual reality haven't been invented yet. The U.S. needs thenew companies that will invent them.

Finally,because automation threatens to widen the gap between capital income and laborincome, taxes and the safety net will have to be rethought. Taxes on low-wagelabor need to be cut, and wage subsidies such as the earned income tax creditshould be expanded: This would boost incomes, encourage work, reward companiesfor job creation, and reduce inequality.

Technologywill improve society in ways big and small over the next few years, yet thiswill be little comfort to those who find their lives and careers upended byautomation.

Destroyingthe machines that are coming for our jobs would be nuts. But policies to helpworkers adapt will be indispensable.

21.Who will be most threatened by automation?

[A]Leading politicians.

[B]Low-wage laborers.

[C]Robot owners.

[D]Middle-class workers.

22.Which of the following best represent the author’s view?

[A]Worries about automation are in fact groundless.

[B]Optimists' opinions on new tech find little support.

[C]Issues arising from automation need to be tackled.

[D]Negative consequences of new tech can be avoided.

23.Education in the age of automation should put more emphasis on

[A]creative potential.

[B]job-hunting skills.

[C]individual needs.

[D]cooperative spirit.

24.Theauthor suggests that tax policies be aimed at

[A]encouraging the development of automation.

[B]increasing the return on capital investment.

[C]easing the hostility between rich and poor.

[D]preventing the income gap from widening.

25.Inthis text, the author presents a problem with

[A]opposing views on it.

[B]possible solutions to it.

[C]its alarming impacts.

[D]its major variations.

Text 2

A newsurvey by Harvard University finds more than two-thirds of young Americansdisapprove of President Trump’s use of Twitter. The implication is thatMillennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through othersource, Not a president’s social media platform.

MostAmericans rely on social media to check daily headlines. Yet as distrust hasrisen toward all media, people may be starting to beef up their media literacyskills. Such a trend is badly needed. During the 2016 presidential campaign,nearly a quarter of web content shared by Twitter users in the politicallycritical state of Michigan was fake news, according to the University ofOxford. And a survey conducted for BuzzFeed News found 44 percent of Facebookusers rarely or never trust news from the media giant.

Youngpeople who are digital natives are indeed becoming more skillful at separatingfact from fiction in cyberspace. A Knight Foundation focus-group survey ofyoung people between ages 14and24 found they use “distributed trust” to verifystories. They cross-check sources and prefer news from differentperspectives—especially those that are open about any bias. “Many young peopleassume a great deal of personal responsibility for educating themselves andactively seeking out opposing viewpoints,” the survey concluded.

Such activeresearch can have another effect. A 2014 survey conducted in Australia,Britain, and the United States by the University of Wisconsin-Madison foundthat young people’s reliance on social media led to greater politicalengagement.

Socialmedia allows users to experience news events more intimately and immediatelywhile also permitting them to re-share news as a projection of their values andinterests. This forces users to be more conscious of their role in passingalong information. A survey by Barna research group found the top reason givenby Americans for the fake news phenomenon is “reader error,” more so thanmade-up stories or factual mistakes in reporting. About a third say the problemof fake news lies in “misinterpretation or exaggeration of actual news” viasocial media. In other words, the choice to share news on social media may bethe heart of the issue. “This indicates there is a real personal responsibilityin counteracting this problem,” says Roxanne Stone, editor in chief at Barna Group.

So whenyoung people are critical of an over-tweeting president, they reveal a mentaldiscipline in thinking skills – and in their choices on when to share on socialmedia.

26.According to the Paragraphs 1 and 2, many young Americans cast doubts on

[A]the justification of the news-filtering practice.

[B]people’s preference for social media platforms.

[C]the administrations ability to handle information.

[D]social media was a reliable source of news.

27.The phrase “beer up”(Line 2, Para. 2) is closest in meaning to





28.According to the knight foundation survey, young people

[A]tend to voice their opinions in cyberspace.

[B]verify news by referring to diverse resources.

[C]have s strong sense of responsibility.

[D]like to exchange views on “distributed trust”

29.The Barna survey found that a main cause for the fake news problem is

[A]readers outdated values.

[B]journalists’ biased reporting

[C]readers’ misinterpretation

[D]journalists’ made-up stories.

30.Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

[A]A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online

[B]A Counteraction Against the Over-tweeting Trend

[C]The Accumulation of Mutual Trust on Social Media.

[D]The Platforms for Projection of Personal Interests.

Text 3

Anyfair-minded assessment of the dangers of the deal between Britain's NationalHealth Service (NHS) and DeepMind must start by acknowledging that both sidesmean well. DeepMind is one of the leading artificial intelligence (AI)companies in the world. The potential of this work applied to healthcare isvery great, but it could also lead to further concentration of power in thetech giants. It Is against that background that the information commissioner,Elizabeth Denham, has issued her damning verdict against the Royal Freehospital trust under the NHS, which handed over to DeepMind the records of 1.6million patients In 2015 on the basis of a vague agreement which took far toolittle account of the patients' rights and their expectations of privacy.

DeepMindhas almost apologized. The NHS trust has mended its ways. Further arrangements-and there may be many-between the NHS and DeepMind will be carefullyscrutinised to ensure that all necessary permissions have been asked ofpatients and all unnecessary data has been cleaned. There are lessons aboutinformed patient consent to learn. But privacy is not the only angle in thiscase and not even the most important. Ms Denham chose to concentrate the blameon the NHS trust, since under existing law it “controlled” the data andDeepMind merely “processed" it. But this distinction misses the point thatit is processing and aggregation, not the mere possession of bits, that givesthe data value.

Thegreat question is who should benefit from the analysis of all the data that ourlives now generate. Privacy law builds on the concept of damage to anindividual from identifiable knowledge about them. That misses the way the surveillanceeconomy works. The data of an individual there gains its value only when it iscompared with the data of countless millions more.

The useof privacy law to curb the tech giants in this instance feels slightlymaladapted. This practice does not address the real worry. It is not enough tosay that the algorithms DeepMind develops will benefit patients and save lives.What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which developedthem using public resources. If software promises to save lives on the scalethat dugs now can, big data may be expected to behave as a big pharm has done.We are still at the beginning of this revolution and small choices now may turnout to have gigantic consequences later. A long struggle will be needed to avoida future of digital feudalism. Ms Denham's report is a welcome start.

31.Whatis true of the agreement between the NHS and DeepMind ?

[A]It caused conflicts among tech giants.

[B]It failed to pay due attention to patient’s rights.

[C]It fell short of the latter's expectations

[D]It put both sides into a dangerous situation.

32.The NHS trust responded to Denham's verdict with______.

[A]empty promises

[B]tough resistance

[C]necessary adjustments

[D]sincere apologies

33.Theauthor argues in Paragraph 2 that ______.

[A]privacy protection must be secured at all costs

[B]leaking patients' data is worse than selling it

[C]making profits from patients' data is illegal

[D]the value of data comes from the processing of it

34.Accordingto the last paragraph, the real worry arising from this deal is ______.

[A]the vicious rivalry among big pharmas

[B]the ineffective enforcement of privacy law

[C]the uncontrolled use of new software

[D]the monopoly of big data by tech giants

35.Theauthor's attitude toward the application of AI to healthcare is ______.





Text 4

TheU.S. Postal Service (USPS) continues to bleed red ink. It reported a net loss of$5.6 billion for fiscal 2016, the 10th straight year its expenses have exceededrevenue. Meanwhile, it has more than $120 billion in unfunded liabilities,mostly for employee health and retirement costs. There are many bankruptcies.Fundamentally, the USPS is in a historic squeeze between technological changethat has permanently decreased demand for its bread-and-butter product,first-class mail, and a regulatory structure that denies management theflexibility to adjust its operations to the new reality

Andinterest groups ranging from postal unions to greeting-card makers exertself-interested pressure on the USPS’s ultimate overseer-Congress-insistingthat whatever else happens to the Postal Service, aspects of the status quothey depend on get protected. This is why repeated attempts at reformlegislation have failed in recent years, leaving the Postal Service unable topay its bills except by deferring vital modernization.

Nowcomes word that everyone involved — Democrats, Republicans, the Postal Service,the unions and the system's heaviest users — has finally agreed on a plan tofix the system. Legislation is moving through the House that would save USPS anestimated $28.6 billion over five years, which could help pay for new vehicles,among other survival measures. Most of the money would come from apenny-per-letter permanent rate increase and from shifting postal retirees intoMedicare. The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annuallypre-funding retiree health care, thus addressing a long-standing complaint bythe USPS and its union.

If itclears the House, this measure would still have to get through the Senate –where someone is bound to point out that it amounts to the bare, bare minimumnecessary to keep the Postal Service afloat, not comprehensive reform. There’sno change to collective bargaining at the USPS, a major omission consideringthat personnel accounts for 80 percent of the agency’s costs. Also missing isany discussion of eliminating Saturday letter delivery. That common-sensechange enjoys wide public support and would save the USPS $2 billion per year.But postal special-interest groups seem to have killed it, at least in theHouse. The emerging consensus around the bill is a sign that legislators are gettingfrightened about a politically embarrassing short-term collapse at the USPS. Itis not, however, a sign that they’re getting serious about transforming thepostal system for the 21st century.

36.Thefinancial problem with the USPS is caused partly by ______.

[A]its unbalanced budget

[B]its rigid management

[C]the cost for technical upgrading

[D]the withdrawal of bank support

37.According to Paragraph 2, the USPS fails to modernize itself due to ______.

[A]the interference from interest groups

[B]the inadequate funding from Congress

[C]the shrinking demand for postal service

[D]the incompetence of postal unions

38.The long-standing complaint by the USPS and its unions can be addressed by______.

[A]removing its burden of retiree health care

[B]making more investment in new vehicles

[C]adopting a new rate-increase mechanism

[D]attracting more first-class mail users

39.In the last paragraph, the author seems to view legislators with ______.





40.Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

[A]The USPS Starts to Miss Its Good Old Days

[B]The Postal Service: Keep Away from My Cheese

[C]The USPS: Chronic Illness Requires a Quick Cure

[D]The Postal Service Needs More than a Band-Aid

Part B


Thefollowing paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you arerequired to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosingfrom the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs C and Fhave been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

[A] InDecember of 1869, Congress appointed a commission to select a site and prepareplans and cost estimates for a new State Department Building. The commissionwas also to consider possible arrangements for the War and Navy Departments. Tothe horror of some who expected a Greek Revival twin of the Treasury Buildingto be erected on the other side of the White House, the elaborate French SecondEmpire style design by Alfred Mullett was selected, and construction of abuilding to house all three departments began in June of 1871.

[B] Completedin 1875, the State Department's south wing was the first to be occupied, withits elegant four-story library (completed in 1876), Diplomatic Reception Room,and Secretary's office decorated with carved wood, Oriental rugs, and stenciledwall patterns. The Navy Department moved into the east wing in 1879, whereelaborate wall and ceiling stenciling and marquetry floors decorated the officeof the Secretary.

[C] TheState, War, and Navy Building, as it was originally known, housed the threeExecutive Branch Departments most intimately associated with formulating andconducting the nation's foreign policy in the last quarter of the nineteenthcentury and the first quarter of the twentieth century-the period when theUnited States emerged as an international power. The building has housed someof the nation's most significant diplomats and politicians and has been thescene of many historic events.

[D]Many of the most celebrated national figures have participated in historicalevents that have taken place within the EEOB's granite walls. Theodore andFranklin D. Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B.Johnson, Gerald Ford, and George H. W. Bush all had offices in this buildingbefore becoming president. It has housed 16 Secretaries of the Navy, 21Secretaries of War, and 24 Secretaries of State. Winston Churchill once walkedits corridors and Japanese emissaries met here with Secretary of State CordellHull after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

[E] TheEisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB) commands a unique position in boththe national history and the architectural heritage of the United States.Designed by Supervising Architect of the Treasury, Alfred B. Mullett, it wasbuilt from 1871 to 1888 to house the growing staffs of the State, War, and NavyDepartments, and is considered one of the best examples of French Second Empirearchitecture in the country.

[F]Construction took 17 years as the building slowly rose wing by wing. When theEEOB was finished, it was the largest office building in Washington, withnearly 2 miles of black and white tiled corridors. Almost all of the interiordetail is of cast iron or plaster; the use of wood was minimized to insure firesafety. Eight monumental curving staircases of granite with over 4,000individually cast bronze balusters are capped by four skylight domes and twostained glass rotundas.

[G] Thehistory of the EEOB began long before its foundations were laid. The firstexecutive offices were constructed between 1799 and 1820. A series of fires(including those set by the British in 1814) and overcrowded conditions led tothe construction of the existing Treasury Building. In 1866, the constructionof the North Wing of the Treasury Building necessitated the demolition of theState Department building.

41.(E)→C →42. (G) →43. (A)→F→44. (B)→45. (D)

Part C


Readthe following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments intoChinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10points)

Shakespeare’slife time was coincident with a period of extraordinary activity andachievement in the drama. (46) By the date of his birth Europe waswitnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of newforms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy. These new forms wereat first mainly written by scholars and performed by amateurs, but in England,as everywhere else in western Europe, the growth of a class of professionalactors was threatening to make the drama popular, whether it should be new orold, classical or medieval, literary or farcical. Court, school organizationsof amateurs, and the traveling actors were all rivals in supplying a widespreaddesire for dramatic entertainment; and (47) no boy who went a grammar schoolcould be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory toGreece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.

WhenShakespeare was twelve years old, the first public playhouse was built inLondon. For a time literature showed no interest in this public stage. Playsaiming at literary distinction were written for school or court, or for thechoir boys of St. Paul’s and the royal chapel, who, however, gave plays inpublic as well as at court. (48) but the professional companies prospered intheir permanent theaters, and university men with literature ambitions werequick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood. By thetime Shakespeare was twenty-five, Lyly, Peele, and Greene had made comediesthat were at once popular and literary; Kyd had written a tragedy that crowdedthe pit; and Marlowe had brought poetry and genius to triumph on the commonstage - where they had played no part since the death of Euripides. (49) Anative literary drama had been created, its alliance with the public playhousesestablished, and at least some of its great traditions had been begun.

Thedevelopment of the Elizabethan drama for the next twenty-five years is ofexceptional interest to students of literary history, for in this brief periodwe may trace the beginning, growth, blossoming, and decay of many kinds ofplays, and of many great careers. We are amazed today at the mere number ofplays produced, as well as by the number of dramatists writing at the same timefor this London of two hundred thousand inhabitants. (50)To realize howgreat was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of playshave been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire workhas survived.

SectionIII Writing



Writean email to all international experts on campus inviting them to attend thegraduation ceremony. In your email you should include time, place and otherrelevant information about the ceremony.

Youshould write about 100 words neatly on the ANSEWER SHEET

Donot use your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead. (10points)



Writean essay of 160-200 words based on the picture below. In your essay, you should

1)describe the pictures briefly.

2)interpret the meaning, and

3)give you comments.

Youshould write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(20 points)



Section I Useof English

1. for  2. faith 3. price  4. Then  5. When 6. produce  7. connect  8. to

9. mood  10. counterparts  11. Lucky 12. protect  13. between

14. introduced  15. inside 16. discovered  17. fooled  18. willing

19. In contrast  20. unreliable

Section IIReading Comprehension

Part A

Text 1

21. Middle-classworkers

22. Issuesarising from automation need to be tackled

23. A creativepotential

24. preventingthe income gap from widening

25. possiblesolutions to it

Text 2

26. socialmedia as a reliable source of news

27. sharpen

28. verify newsby referring to diverse sources.

29. readers’misinterpretation

30. A Rise inCritical Skills for Sharing News Online

Text 3

31. It failedto pay due attention to patients’ rights.

32. necessaryadjustments.

33. the valueof data comes from the processing of it.

34. themonopoly of big data by tech giants.

35. cautious

Text 4

36. its rigidmanagement

37. theinterference from interest groups

38. removingits burden of retiree health care

39. discontent

40. The PostalService Needs more than a Band-Aid

Part B

41. [E] TheEisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB) commands a…

42. [G] Thehistory of the EEOB began long before its…

43. [A] InDecember of 1869, Congress appointed…

44. [B]Completed in 1875, the State Department’s south wing…

45. [D] Many ofthe most celebrated national figures…

Section IIITranslation

(46) 莎士比亚出生之时,欧洲宗教戏剧正在消逝,在古典悲剧和戏剧的推动下,很多新的戏剧形式应运而生。

(47) 任何文法学校的学生都知道戏剧是一种文学形式,它曾给希腊和罗马带来荣耀,也许同样会给英格兰带来殊荣。

(48) 但是专业公司的永久性剧院却兴旺起来,于是高校一些有着文学抱负的人迅速抓住机遇,将其作为一个谋生手段。

(49) 一种本土文学戏剧形式诞生了,它与公共剧院结成联盟,至少它的一些优良传统开始登上历史舞台了。

(50) 为了了解戏剧性活动有多么伟大,我们必须牢记大量的戏剧已经被遗忘了,并且有可能没有一位知名作家的所有作品都保留了下来。

Section IVWriting



I, on behalf ofthe Students’ Union, am writing this letter to invite all of you to attend thegraduation ceremony.

The ceremonywill be held in the Sports Hall of our university on this Friday morning, from9 a.m. to 11 a.m. The details about the ceremony are as follows. First andforemost, the president will make a speech for the graduates, blessing them tohave a bright future. In addition, several experts will be invited to issuingcertificates to all the graduates.

It would be agreat honor for us to have the accompany of all of you in the graduationceremony. Therefore, we all hope that you can spare your time to attend it andwe are looking forward to your reply to tell us whether you can attend it ornot on that day.

Your sincerely,

Li Ming


Exhibited inthe cartoon is a sarcastic scene that sitting before a computer, a collegestudent is choosing his optional class, wondering and pondering whether heshould choose an easier course or a tougher but creative course. Simple as thepicture is, the symbolic meaning it conveys is profound and thought-provoking.

It is beyonddoubt that the painter aims to tell us that everyone, especially collegestudents, should have the spirit of creation and innovation. To put it anotherway, innovation is an essential and indispensable role for anyone who wants tosucceed. This can be directly attributed to the fact that one may be caught indilemma, at least once in life. Such a dilemma may coincidentally be mostdifficult period in his life. Then there are two choices before him: making acreative choice or an easier one. If he chooses the former and tries to breakthrough the barrier, difficult as it will be, success will be the result oneday. However, although it seems to be much easier for him at the moment, thelatter choice may kill off his dream and ambition, and such choice then will bea pity all his life.

As collegestudent, definitely, we are facing or will face many difficulties. At suchmoment, we should bear in mind that creation is a necessary and indispensablequality in our life, a positive attitude to life and an approach to success.Keep the spirit of innovation, and we will win a better life.